An introduction to the report on the endangered species the hippopotamus

The term biological diversity or biodiversity refers to the variety of life forms and habitats found in a defined area. The term biodiversity was coined by W. Diversity characterizes most living organisms, the our earth supports something like 5 to 10 million species of plants and animals IUCN, which have been the result of 3 billion years of evolution involving mutation, recombination and natural selection.

An introduction to the report on the endangered species the hippopotamus

Cetacea Anthracotherium magnum from the Oligocene of Europe The most recent theory of the origins of Hippopotamidae suggests that hippos and whales shared a common semiaquatic ancestor that branched off from other artiodactyls around 60 million years ago.

All branches of the anthracotheres, except that which evolved into Hippopotamidaebecame extinct during the Pliocene without leaving any descendants. Anthracotherium and Elomeryx to the Miocene species Merycopotamus and Libycosaurus and the very latest anthracotheres in the Pliocene.

Their common ancestor would have lived in the Miocene, about 20 million years ago.


Hippopotamids are therefore deeply nested within the family Anthracotheriidae. The Hippopotamidae are believed to have evolved in Africa; the oldest known hippopotamid is the genus Kenyapotamuswhich lived in Africa from 16 to 8 million years ago.

While hippopotamid species spread across Asia and Europe, no hippopotamuses have ever been discovered in the Americas, although various anthracothere genera emigrated into North America during the early Oligocene.

Taxonomists disagree whether or not the modern pygmy hippopotamus is a member of Hexaprotodon — an apparently paraphyletic genus, also embracing many extinct Asian hippopotamuses, that is more closely related to Hippopotamus — or of Choeropsis, an older and basal genus.

Extinct species Three species of Malagasy hippopotamus became extinct during the Holocene on Madagascarone of them within the past 1, years. The Malagasy hippos were smaller than the modern hippopotamus, likely through the process of insular dwarfism.

All three species became extinct before the last glaciation. Ancestors of European hippos found their way to many islands of the Mediterranean Sea during the Pleistocene.

Of these, the Cyprus dwarf hippopotamus survived until the end of the Pleistocene or early Holocene. Evidence from an archaeological site, Aetokremnoscontinues to cause debate on whether or not the species was encountered, and was driven to extinction, by man.

Hippopotami are among the largest living land mammals, being only smaller than elephants and some rhinoceroses.

An introduction to the report on the endangered species the hippopotamus

Male hippos appear to continue growing throughout their lives while females reach maximum weight at around age They are incapable of jumping but do climb up steep banks.

It is rarely found in deep water; when it is, the animal moves by porpoise-like leaps from the bottom.

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This allows these organs to remain above the surface while the rest of the body submerges. In addition, the penis retracts into the body when not erect. The genitals of the female are unusual in that the vagina is ridged and two large diverticula protrude from the vulval vestibule.

The function of these is unknown. The lower canines and lower incisors are enlarged, especially in males, and grow continuously.

An introduction to the report on the endangered species the hippopotamus

Hippos rely on their broad horny lips to grasp and pull grasses which are then ground by the molars. By contrast, its subcutaneous fat layer is thin. The secretion is sometimes referred to as "blood sweat", but is neither blood nor sweat.

This secretion is initially colourless and turns red-orange within minutes, eventually becoming brown. Two distinct pigments have been identified in the secretions, one red hipposudoric acid and one orange norhipposudoric acid.

The two pigments are highly acidic compounds.CITES is an international agreement between governments, aimed to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival.

The common Hippo is considered Vulnerable and the pygmy hippo is considered Endangered by the IUCN. Introduction to Hippopotamuses. The Hippo, short for Hippopotamus, is a very unique looking creature.

Hippopotamus Facts and Information

The name of these animals comes from the Greek language and means River Horse. Hippopotamus Species Overview; . The hippopotamus, also known as the “river horse,” lives along the rivers and lakes throughout sub-Saharan Africa.

Weighing up to 8, pounds, the hippo is the heaviest land animal after the elephant. Hippos seek refuge from the heat by living in water during the day, and at night they come ashore to feed on short, soft grasses and fallen fruit.

The Hippopotamus: Endangered Species Report Jason Wapiennik Mr. Trippeer, Biology January 6th, The ban on elephant ivory trading has slowed down the poaching of elephants, but now poachers are getting their ivory from another creature, the hippopotamus.

Hippos are endangered mainly because poachers hunt them for their meat and the ivory in their teeth.

Hippopotamus - Wikipedia

Other threats are habitat loss due to the encroachment of human settlements and the diversion of river water for agriculture. Hippo meat is sold on the black market as a delicacy. Trade in hippo. U.S.

Fish and Wildlife Service – Administers the Endangered Species Act, coordinates partnership efforts. Migration and Wintering Report Locations.

Scott Hicks. Field Supervisor. Introduction to the Endangered Species Act Author.

Why Are Hippos Endangered? |