As the absolute rule of kings weakened, Enlightenment philosophers argued for different forms of democracy. The war ended with the beheading of the king. Shortly after Charles was executed, an English philosopher, Thomas Hobbes —wrote Leviathana defense of the absolute power of kings.
His mother died only a few days later on July 7, and his only sibling, an older brother, ran away from home when Rousseau was still a child. Rousseau was therefore brought up mainly by his father, a clockmaker, with whom at an early age he read ancient Greek and Roman literature such as the Lives of Plutarch.
His father got into a quarrel with a French captain, and at the risk of imprisonment, left Geneva for the rest of his life.
Rousseau stayed behind and was cared for by an uncle who sent him along with his cousin to study in the village of Bosey.
InRousseau was apprenticed to an engraver and began to learn the trade. Although he did not detest the work, he thought his master to be violent and tyrannical. He therefore left Geneva inand fled to Annecy.
Here he met Louise de Warens, who was instrumental in his conversion to Catholicism, which forced him to forfeit his Genevan citizenship in he would make a return to Geneva and publicly convert back to Calvanism. During this time he earned money through secretarial, teaching, and musical jobs.
In Rousseau went to Paris to become a musician and composer. After two years spent serving a post at the French Embassy in Venice, he returned in and met a linen-maid named Therese Levasseur, who would become his lifelong companion they eventually married in They had five children together, all of whom were left at the Paris orphanage.
It was also during this time that Rousseau became friendly with the philosophers Condillac and Diderot. The work was widely read and was controversial.
But Rousseau attempted to live a modest life despite his fame, and after the success of his opera, he promptly gave up composing music. In the autumn ofRousseau submitted an entry to another essay contest announced by the Academy of Dijon.
Rousseau himself thought this work to be superior to the First Discourse because the Second Discourse was significantly longer and more philosophically daring. The judges were irritated by its length as well its bold and unorthodox philosophical claims; they never finished reading it. However, Rousseau had already arranged to have it published elsewhere and like the First Discourse, it also was also widely read and discussed.
Ina year after the publication of the Second Discourse, Rousseau and Therese Levasseur left Paris after being invited to a house in the country by Mme. Inafter repeated quarrels with Mme. It was during this time that Rousseau wrote some of his most important works. In he published a novel, Julie or the New Heloise, which was one of the best selling of the century.
Then, just a year later inhe published two major philosophical treatises: Paris authorities condemned both of these books, primarily for claims Rousseau made in them about religion, which forced him to flee France.
He settled in Switzerland and in he began writing his autobiography, his Confessions. A year later, after encountering difficulties with Swiss authorities, he spent time in Berlin and Paris, and eventually moved to England at the invitation of David Hume.
However, due to quarrels with Hume, his stay in England lasted only a year, and in he returned to the southeast of France incognito. After spending three years in the southeast, Rousseau returned to Paris in and copied music for a living. It was during this time that he wrote Rousseau: Judge of Jean-Jacques and the Reveries of the Solitary Walker, which would turn out to be his final works.John Locke (—) John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century.
He is often regarded as the founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to modern theories of limited, liberal government. Jean-Jacques Rousseau was born of middle-class parents in the fiercely independent Protestant municipality of Geneva.
Remnants of Jean-Jacques Rousseau's beliefs in human rights, government elected by the masses, and the limited governmental control of the masses can be compared to the methodology of the democratic republic that governs the United States.
Rousseau believed above all else that people's rights were of most importance. From a general summary to chapter summaries to explanations of famous quotes, the SparkNotes The Social Contract Study Guide has everything you need to ace quizzes, tests, and essays.
A summary of The Social Contract in 's Jean-Jacques Rousseau (–). Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Jean-Jacques Rousseau (–) and what it means.
Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. The Social Contract, originally published as On the Social Contract; or, Principles of Political Rights (French: Du contrat social; ou Principes du droit politique) by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, is a book in which Rousseau theorized about the best way to establish a political community in the face of the problems of commercial society, .