When and where did humans split from the apes to become a separate branch of bipeds? Are we an ape or not? If so, which of the living Great Apes is the closest to humans?
Messenger Just the other day I found myself in the waiting room of an automotive dealership. While my car was being serviced, I flipped through a product brochure. Another for new brakes guaranteed maximum performance for twelve months.
We appraise goods more highly when their positive attributes are emphasized over their negative attributes, even if the details describe essentially the same situation e. Other examples include loss aversion the preference for avoiding losses over acquiring gainsthe endowment effect people ascribe more value to something once they own itand the reflection effect people shift their risk preferences when dealing with gains versus losses.
For example, people are more likely to spend a sum of money when it is framed as a bonus than when it is framed as compensation for a previous loss, like a rebate, which has implications for population trends in spending versus saving.
Decision-making research can help economic institutions — built on the erroneous assumption that people will behave rationally — to account for predictable irrationality.
The vast oceans of water beneath the Earth’s crust is precisely what the Bible describes in the first book of Genesis. In fact, prior to the flood of Noah’s day, it had never rained. 19 Feb , am Comment: A 1p charge for retailers is a great start, but our shopping habits must change if fashion is to be more sustainable. 1 APES REVIEW: “THE MANY WAYS TO GO APE(S)” Put these facts on index cards. Study them throughout the year. The underlined term or phrase goes on one side, and the definition/explanation goes on the other side.
It can also help us to design choice environments that lead people to make decisions that are better for them. For these reasons, Daniel Kahneman was awarded the Nobel Prize in Economics infor his contributions with the late Amos Tversky to the understanding of irrational decision-making.
Recent research attempts to understand where these biases come from. In most societies, humans interact with monetary markets from a young age; it seems intuitive that such exposure would be the principle source of decision-making strategies and biases. Culture and socialization must be involved, right?
But while human culture and market experience may play a role, it now seems clear that choice biases are much more deeply rooted in our biology. Previous investigations had shown that some other species — including European starlings and capuchin monkeys — may also exhibit irrational biases such as framing effects.
However, because these species are fairly distant relatives of humans, it is difficult to know if framing effects are shared as a result of common ancestry, or if they evolved independently in each species. In the study, we presented the apes with choices between several peanuts and some fruit.
We initially presented it as a single piece of fruit, but, half the time that the apes chose it, we provided them with a second piece as well.
Here we presented the fruit option as two pieces of fruit, but, half the time the apes chose it, we took a piece back and only provided the ape with one.
Even though in both conditions apes who chose the fruit option received identical payoffs — a chance of getting one or two pieces of fruit — they chose the fruit option significantly more when it was framed positively than when it was framed negatively: Instead, it appears that choice biases are evolutionarily ancient.
They were probably present in the last common ancestor of bonobos, chimpanzees, and humans, which lived about six million years ago, and may even be much older.
That framing effects are shared with several non-human species also suggests that these biases are deeply rooted in our biology, and can arise in the absence of experience with uniquely human monetary markets.
Choice biases may have evolved in response to certain challenges in foraging ecology, or they may represent a by-product for selection on other traits, such as emotions.
Interestingly, we found that male apes were much more susceptible to framing than female apes were. In humans, gender differences in decision-making may result from a number of different factors, including gender-specific socialization, motivational differences, or experience with markets.
Our results underscore the importance of studying large populations of non-human animals: Our findings contribute to a large body of research on human decision-making that tells a pretty consistent story:Disclosure statement.
Christopher Krupenye receives funding from the National Science Foundation, the National Academy of Sciences, and the United States Agency for International Development. 19 Feb , am Comment: A 1p charge for retailers is a great start, but our shopping habits must change if fashion is to be more sustainable.
The vast oceans of water beneath the Earth’s crust is precisely what the Bible describes in the first book of Genesis. In fact, prior to the flood of Noah’s day, it had never rained.
When and where did humans split from the apes to become a separate branch of bipeds?
Are we an ape or not? If so, which of the living Great Apes is the closest to humans? European philosophers and. 1 APES REVIEW: “THE MANY WAYS TO GO APE(S)” Put these facts on index cards. Study them throughout the year. The underlined term or phrase goes on one side, and the definition/explanation goes on the other side.