Print Key Info Make a list to keep track of ALL the books, magazines, and websites you read as you follow your background research plan. Later this list of sources will become your bibliography. Most teachers want you to have at least three written sources of information. Write down, photocopy, or print the following information for each source you find.
Unpublished Sources Huge quantities of information are now available electronically via the Internet. Most college students now have access to the World Wide Web, either on computers at school or at home by dialing up a server with a modem.
Electronic texts or "e-texts" are popping up more and more in research papers. There are a number of reasons for this. On one hand, the internet gives users access to the information on hundreds of thousands of servers throughout the world-the breadth and depth of available knowledge is incredible.
On the other hand, the documents on the internet are "surfable" from a single location, bringing a global library to your computer. The very fact that you are reading this proves how important the internet has become in education.
However, several problems have arisen from this surge in the availability and popularity of electronically-accessed information. First, many students have no idea how to cite electronic texts. Only the most current style manuals give any hint as to how to write a reference entry for, say, a Web page; even then, the citation formats are sometimes confusing and outdated.
Interestingly enough, it is Web sites like this one that can help solve this problem. Second, compared to print-based resources, e-texts are relatively unstable.
While a book consists of information encoded in ink on a printed page, an e-text exists as magnetic pulses over a telephone line. Discounting mishaps such as fire, flood, and theft, books are fairly permanent.
As anyone who uses computers can tell you, though, servers go down and phone connections get cut. Electronic documents can literally be here today and gone tomorrow. As we've mentioned before, the whole purpose of a reference is to allow readers to find a source themselves.
If the source itself no longer exists, this causes problems for validity and verification. One possible solution to this problem is to keep careful records. Saving e-texts either as screenshots or text files will allow you to produce the source for a reader, even if the document has disappeared from the server on which you found it.
In addition, it's also wise to use many different types of documents-books and journals, as well as e-texts-rather than relying heavily on one kind of source.
Author s of document if an author is given it is usually at the very beginning or very end of a particular document; when in doubt, look for an email address-this will often lead you to the name of the person who authored the document.Citing Internet Sources Also note: In the Bibliography, Chicago style adds the URL (the Web address that begins with “http”), and does not name the database service directly if that name is part of the Web address.
For Chicago, as for APA„ when a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is available, list the DOI instead of the URL. A bibliography is a listing of the books, magazines, and Internet sources that you use in designing, carrying out, and understanding your science fair project.
But, you develop a bibliography only after first preparing a background research plan — a road map of the research questions you need to answer. Double-space all lines in a bibliography entry. Do not indent the first line of a bibliography entry, but indent second and subsequent lines 5 spaces, or 1/2″ ( cm) from the left margin.
Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated. Citing an Internet source is similar to citing a book or periodical.
There are different rules for different types of citations (MLA, APA or CSE, for example). Knowing how to enter Internet sources on a bibliography is important. Style guidelines serve as another important element to shaping your bibliography. In North America, along with countries like China and Japan, bibliographies tend to be formatted in MLA style.
Do I need a bibliography? If you read any articles or books in preparing your paper, you need a bibliography or footnotes.
If you cite the arguments of “critics” and “supporters,” even if you don’t name them or quote them directly, you are likely referring to information you read in books or articles as opposed to information you’ve gathered firsthand, like a news reporter, and so.