Read this essay to learn about Microbiology.
In this essay we will discuss about Bacteria. After reading this essay you will learn about: Meaning of Bacteria 2. Salient Features of Bacteria 3.
The bacteria constitute a very wide group of microorganisms that exhibit a fascinating diversity in morphology, habitat, nutrition, Microbiology pioneers essay, and reproduction. Although they are not very complex morphologically, the tiny bacteria nevertheless have highly complex physiological, biochemical, cytological, and genetically characteristics making them a valuable tool for understanding the various intricacies of life.
Due to their extreme simplicity in structure, small size favouring rapid cell division, highly resistant nature and diversified mode of nutrition, bacteria are of universal occurrence. They are present in our mouth and flourish in intestine.
They are present in air we breathe and Microbiology pioneers essay food we eat. They abundantly occur in fresh and salt water, soil water and even in ice. Their most favourable habitat is soil, where they occur in abundance mainly in the upper half feet.
In a handful of garden soil, the bacterial population may outnumber the human population on the earth. They live in all conditions not fatal to living beings and are among the most numerous of all living beings present in almost every conceivable environment.
Some bacteria are deadly parasites of plants, animals and human beings; some live as mutualists with plants or as commensals in the alimentary canals of animals.
Salient Features of Bacteria: Bacteria eubacteria are microscopic and least differentiated living organisms, believed to be the first primitive organisms on our planet.
They are the typical prokaryotes and also possess characters resembling both the plants and the animals.
Bacteria show considerable variation in characters almost themselves, they possess many characters common to all. Such common characters of bacteria are the following: They are omnipresent and occur in all possible habitats one can think of.
Most of the bacteria have heterotrophic absorptive mode of nutrition, i. Some bacteria are autotrophic; they possess bacteriochlorophyll and synthesize their own food.
Bacteria are usually single-called and morphologically least complex of all the living organisms. Bacteriochlorophyll pigments, whenever present, are located within involuted cytoplasmic membranes; well organised plastids are absent.
Bacterial cell wall is a dense layer surrounding the plasma membrane and functions to give shape and rigidity to the cell. The main constituent or back-bone of bacterial cell wall is peptidoglycan also known murein, muranic acid or mucopeptidewhich is biochemically unique and is absent in cell walls of archea archaebacteria or any eukaryote.
A well organised nucleus, characteristic of eukaryotes, is lacking and descrete chromosomes are also absent.
The nuclear material is not surrounded by nuclear membrane and is usually called nucleoid. Bacterial DNA have no histone proteins and nucleosomes.
The organelles like mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus are absent. The function of mitochondria is carried out by complex localized in folding of plasma membrane known as mesosomes.
Ribosomes occur abundantly and freely in the cytoplasm of a bacterial cell. Each ribosome has a sedimentation coefficient of 70S and is made up of two subunits of 50S and 30S each consisting of roughly equal amounts of rRNA and protein.
Bacteria reproduce asexually and multiply most commonly by binary fission. True sexual reproduction is absent. The sexuality is completed by genetic recombination methods called conjugation, transformation and transduction.
The motile bacteria possess one or more flagella. Each flagellum is composed of eight parallel chains of flagellin molecules, a type of protein. The following categories of bacteria are recognized on the basis of diversity in their morphological features: The cocci bacteria [Fig.
They occur either singly microbacillusin pairs diplobacillusin chains streptobacillusor in palisade arrangement. When the bacilli bacteria are so curved that they look like a comma, they are called vibrios Fig.
When the bacilli bacteria are coiled like a cork-screw through complete turns, they are referred to as Spirilla [Fig. In some cases, the stalk is a part of the cell Caulobacterin others it is formed as a result of secretion from the cell Gallionella.Microbiology and Bacteria Essay Microbiology is the study of microorganisms which must be viewed with the aid of a microscope or electron microscope.
The importance of microbiology includes: used in biomedical research, creation of medicines, environmental applications and new research tools. Essay on Microbiology Lab Report Contributors to Microbiology Pioneers of Microbiology I.
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (Oct. 24, Aug. 30, ) A. In Leeuwenhoek saw tiny organisms in water, he was the first man to observe and describe bacteria accurately.
He discovered microscopic nematodes, blood cells and sperm. PIONEERS OF MICROBIOLOGY 1. Prepared by: ashio-midori.com M. Sequihod 2. Bacteria and protozoa – were thefirst microorganisms observed byhumans It took years before man wasable to establish a connectionbetween microorganism andinfectious disease.
It was the discovery of microscopethat made microbiology understandmore about the nature of diseases.
B- The Golden Age of Microbiology 1- Is Spontaneous Generation Of Microbial Life Possible? Redi’s Experiment, Needham’s Experiment, Spallanzani’s Experiment, Pasteur’s Experiment.
Microbiology Pioneers Essay Contributors to Microbiology Pioneers of Microbiology I. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (Oct. 24, Aug. 30, ) A. In Leeuwenhoek saw tiny organisms in water, he was the first man to observe and describe bacteria accurately.
Jun 11, · List of 20 possible topics for essay on microbiology with explanations, ashio-midori.com