Departure[ edit ] The Call to Adventure[ edit ] The hero begins in a situation of normality from which some information is received that acts as a call to head off into the unknown. The hero can go forth of his own volition to accomplish the adventure, as did Theseus when he arrived in his father's city, Athens, and heard the horrible history of the Minotaur ; or he may be carried or sent abroad by some benign or malignant agent as was Odysseusdriven about the Mediterranean by the winds of the angered god, Poseidon. The adventure may begin as a mere blunder Examples might be multiplied, ad infinitumfrom every corner of the world.
Departure[ edit ] The Call to Adventure[ edit ] The hero begins in a situation of normality from which some information is received that acts as a call to head off into the unknown. The adventure may begin as a mere blunder Examples might be multiplied, ad infinitumfrom every corner of Odysseus monomyth world.
This may be from a sense of duty or obligation, fear, insecurity, a sense of inadequacy, or any of a range of reasons that work to hold the person in his current circumstances.
His flowering world becomes a wasteland of dry stones and his life feels meaningless—even though, like King Minoshe may through titanic Odysseus monomyth succeed in building an empire or renown.
Whatever house he builds, it will be a house of death: All he can do is create new problems for himself and await the gradual approach of his disintegration. More often than not, this supernatural mentor will present the hero with one or more talismans or artifacts that will aid him later in his quest.
What such a figure represents is the benign, protecting power of destiny.
The fantasy is a reassurance—promise that the peace of Paradise, which was known first within the mother womb, is not to be lost; that it supports the present and stands in the future as well as in the past is omega as well as alpha ; that though omnipotence may seem to be endangered by the threshold passages and life awakenings, protective power is always and ever present within or just behind the unfamiliar features of the world.
One has only to know and trust, and the ageless guardians will appear. Having responded to his own call, and continuing to follow courageously as the consequences unfold, the hero finds all the forces of the unconscious at his side. Mother Nature herself supports the mighty task.
Beyond them is darkness, the unknown and danger; just as beyond the parental watch is danger to the infant and beyond the protection of his society danger to the members of the tribe.
The usual person is more than content, he is even proud, to remain within the indicated bounds, and popular belief gives him every reason to fear so much as the first step into the unexplored.
The adventure is always and everywhere a passage beyond the veil of the known into the unknown; the powers that watch at the boundary are dangerous; to deal with them is risky; yet for anyone with competence and courage the danger fades. By entering this stage, the person shows willingness to undergo a metamorphosis.
When first entering the stage the hero may encounter a minor danger or set back. The hero, instead of conquering or conciliating the power of the threshold, is swallowed into the unknown and would appear to have died. This popular motif gives emphasis to the lesson that the passage of the threshold is a form of self-annihilation.
Instead of passing outward, beyond the confines of the visible world, the hero goes inward, to be born again. The disappearance corresponds to the passing of a worshipper into a temple—where he is to be quickened by the recollection of who and what he is, namely dust and ashes unless immortal.
The temple interior, the belly of the whale, and the heavenly land beyond, above, and below the confines of the world, are one and the same. That is why the approaches and entrances to temples are flanked and defended by colossal gargoyles: The devotee at the moment of entry into a temple undergoes a metamorphosis.
Once inside he may be said to have died to time and returned to the World Womb, the World Navel, the Earthly Paradise. Allegorically, then, the passage into a temple and the hero-dive through the jaws of the whale are identical adventures, both denoting in picture language, the life-centering, life-renewing act.
Often the hero fails one or more of these tests, which often occur in threes. Eventually the hero will overcome these trials and move on to the next step. This is a favorite phase of the myth-adventure. It has produced a world literature of miraculous tests and ordeals.
The hero is covertly aided by the advice, amulets, and secret agents of the supernatural helper whom he met before his entrance into this region. Or it may be that he here discovers for the first time that there is a benign power everywhere supporting him in his superhuman passage.
The original departure into the land of trials represented only the beginning of the long and really perilous path of initiatory conquests and moments of illumination.
Dragons have now to be slain and surprising barriers passed — again, again, and again. Meanwhile there will be a multitude of preliminary victories, unsustainable ecstasies and momentary glimpses of the wonderful land. This is the crisis at the nadir, the zenith, or at the uttermost edge of the earth, at the central point of the cosmos, in the tabernacle of the temple, or within the darkness of the deepest chamber of the heart.
The meeting with the goddess who is incarnate in every woman is the final test of the talent of the hero to win the boon of love charity: And when the adventurer, in this context, is not a youth but a maid, she is the one who, by her qualities, her beauty, or her yearning, is fit to become the consort of an immortal.
Then the heavenly husband descends to her and conducts her to his bed—whether she will or not. And if she has shunned him, the scales fall from her eyes; if she has sought him, her desire finds its peace.
Woman is a metaphor for the physical or material temptations of life, since the hero-knight was often tempted by lust from his spiritual journey. Generally we refuse to admit within ourselves, or within our friends, the fullness of that pushing, self-protective, malodorous, carnivorous, lecherous fever which is the very nature of the organic cell.
Rather, we tend to perfume, whitewash, and reinterpret; meanwhile imagining that all the flies in the ointment, all the hairs in the soup, are the faults of some unpleasant someone else.Only the most manic conspiracy theorist would question the fact that the Battle of Hastings took place in , or that a man landed on the moon in , or that the Holocaust took place.
For Luke, the darkness was the evil side of the Force, a cosmic spiritualism that Obi-Wan Kenobi and Yoda taught him to harness for good purposes, another element of the Hero Cycle. The Odyssey by Homer is an epic poem that has survived thousands of years!
It is the story of Odysseus, the crafty king of Ithaca, whose Trojan Horse idea helped win the war with Troy. Following his victory in Troy, he encounters many trials that delay him . In narratology and comparative mythology, the monomyth, or the hero's journey, is the common template of a broad category of tales that involve a hero who goes on an adventure, and in a decisive crisis wins a victory, and then comes home changed or transformed.
The Gods, and Zeus Especially, as Spectators in the Iliad - As spectators we are normally passive onlookers of the action taking place. The only influence we can have over the outcome is by making the participants aware of our support by cheering, or of our anger and .
Follow Odysseus on his incredible journey in the epic poem The Odyssey. Lesson plan activities allow students to better understand the Hero's Journey, or Monomyth Cycle.