Personality and sexual orientation essay

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Personality and sexual orientation essay

Historical origins[ edit ] Theodor W. AdornoElse Frenkel-BrunswikDaniel Levinsonand Nevitt Sanford theorized in their book, The Authoritarian Personalityabout a personality type that involved the "potentially fascistic individual". Original theory[ edit ] Adorno et al.

The resulting intrapsychic conflicts cause personal insecurities, resulting in that person's superego to adhere to externally imposed conventional norms conventionalismand to the authorities who impose these norms authoritarian submission.

The ego-defense mechanism of projection occurs as indicated when that person avoids self-reference of the anxiety-producing id impulse, by displaying them onto "inferior" minority groups in the given culture projectivitywith associated beliefs that are highly evaluative power and toughnessand rigid stereotypy.

Additionally, there is a cynical view of humanity and a need for power and toughness resulting from the anxieties produced by perceived lapses in society's conventional norms destructiveness and cynicism.

Other characteristics of this personality type are a general tendency to focus upon those who violate conventional values and act harshly towards them authoritarian aggressiona general opposition to subjective or imaginative tendencies anti-intraceptiona tendency to believe in mystic determination superstitionand finally, an exaggerated concern with promiscuity.

In regards to child development, the formation of the authoritarian type occurs within the first few years of the person's life, strongly shaped by the parents and family structure. Parents who have a need for domination, and who dominate and threaten the child harshly, and demand obedience to conventional behaviors with threats, foster the characteristics of this personality.

Background

In addition, the parents have a preoccupation with social status, and communicate this to the child in terms of rigid and externalized rules. The child then suffers from suppressed feelings of resentment and aggression towards the parents, who are instead, idealized with reverence.

Alfred Adler provided another perspective, linking the "will to power over others" as a central neurotic trait, usually emerging as aggressive over- compensation for felt and dreaded feelings of inferiority and insignificance.

According to this view, the authoritarian's need to maintain control and prove superiority over others is rooted in a worldview populated by enemies and empty of equality, empathy, and mutual benefit.

Kirscht and Dillehay [3] outlined several problems with the Berkeley studies, including response bias. Response bias results from the F scale being uniformly worded in a confirming direction.

EVOLUTION TRENDS:

Hence, if one tends to respond in agreement with items, regardless of their content, one is rated as an authoritarian by such a test.

Actual assessment of 16 Nazi criminals at Nuremberg trials reported in Zillmer, et al. One of the first applications of the authoritarian scales in academia was by Stern and colleagues, in the early s, at the University of Chicago as reported in Wiggins, Validity[ edit ] Soon after the publication of The Authoritarian Personalitythe theory became the subject of many criticisms.

Theoretical problems involved the psychoanalytic interpretation of personality, and methodological problems focused on the inadequacies of the F-scale. Another criticism is that the theory of the Berkeley group insinuates that authoritarianism exists only on the right of the political spectrum.

As a result, some have claimed that the theory is corrupted by political bias. Kreml found that although there were stylistic similarities between authoritarians and anti-authoritarians dogmatism, rigidity, etc. In short, in the synthetic approach, the assumption is that those with authoritarian personality characteristics are assessed with researcher's intuitive model of what characteristics fit the criterion role requirements of the predicted situation support of Fascism.

Hence, it is not a completely empirical approach to prediction, but rather based on "arm chair" situational analysis of the criteria, and intuited psychological characteristics to be assessed that fit the situation. More recently, Jost, Glaser, Kruglanski, and Sulloway [7] have presented how the traditional research in authoritarianism or conservatism has confounded the psychological variables e.

Hence the scales measuring individual differences on authoritarianism often include the criteria attitudinal statements of political ideologies. Although the authoritarian is a personality construct, Adorno et al.

Hence, ideological beliefs created within the culture and other social forces shape the prejudices of the given authoritarian individual. However, as noted by Taylor[8] this hypothesized interaction of society and the individual is lost to most of the subsequent research that implemented the F scale in differential psychological studies.

Given the science of personality assessment, the variety of methods Adorno, et al. An example of the social environment impact is presented by Gibb [9] in his critique of personality traits and leadership, where a study by Katz suggested that the social situation can override personality differences.

In the study, groups of black and white students were formed. Some mixed racial groups had students scoring high authoritarian F scores, and in other mixed groups, low F score students.

Comparisons of high authoritarian white students to those not scoring authoritarian indicated that the former student type were more cooperative and less willing to endorse stereotypes towards blacks. Situational norms against prejudicial perceptions might have influenced authoritarian students to act less prejudicial in order to conform to the prescribed norm.

After extensive questionnaire research and statistical analysis, Canadian psychologist Bob Altemeyer found in that only three of the original nine hypothesized components of the model correlated together:EVOLUTION TRENDS The "INFORMATION AGE" & its Evolution into the "Holographic Age" Challenges & Realistic Goals For Survival & Creating A Desirable Future.

Homophobia encompasses a range of negative attitudes and feelings toward homosexuality or people who are identified or perceived as being lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (). It has been defined as contempt, prejudice, aversion, hatred or antipathy, may be based on irrational fear, and is often related to religious beliefs..

Authoritarian personality - Wikipedia

Homophobia is observable in critical and hostile behavior such. Some are emotional, some are cerebral, and some are a combination of the two. Others are funny, serious, philosophical, and creative. They are as different as the personalities of the people who wrote them, but what these essays all have in common is their honesty and the effort put into creating them.

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Two days ago, a good friend of mine stopped by my office to say hello. My friend is a revolutionary activist that I’ve known since he was a teenager.

Personality and sexual orientation essay

Like always, our conversation focused on social theory, politics, and, most importantly, Black liberation. In the middle of . Educational articles are an excellent resource for parents who are interested in learning about the best parenting practices from experts in the field.

EVOLUTION TRENDS The "INFORMATION AGE" & its Evolution into the "Holographic Age" Challenges & Realistic Goals For Survival & Creating A Desirable Future. EVOLUTION TRENDS The "INFORMATION AGE" & its Evolution into the "Holographic Age" Challenges & Realistic Goals For Survival & Creating A Desirable Future. Dr. Allen Grove is an Alfred University English professor and a college admissions expert with 20 years of experience helping students transition to college. Updated September 03, This example of a college admissions personal essay fits option #1 of the current Common Application: "Some.

Homophobia encompasses a range of negative attitudes and feelings toward homosexuality or people who are identified or perceived as being lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (). It has been defined as contempt, prejudice, aversion, hatred or antipathy, may be based on irrational fear, and is often related to religious beliefs..

Homophobia .

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