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In general, the theology and history of Mary the Mother of God follow the chronological order of their respective sources, i. Jerome  maintains that the Hebrew verb has the meaning of "crushing" or "bruising" rather than of "lying in wait", "guarding".
Still in his own work, which became the Latin Vulgatethe saint employs the verb "to crush" conterere in the first place, and "to lie in wait" insidiari in the second.
Hence the punishment inflicted on the serpent and the serpent's retaliation are expressed by the same verb: According to our version, and the Vulgate reading, the woman herself will win the victory; according to the Hebrew Virgin groupshe Virgin group be victorious through her seed. The reading "she" ipsa is neither an intentional corruption of the original text, nor is it an accidental error ; it is rather an explanatory version expressing explicitly the fact of Our Lady's part in the victory over the serpentwhich is contained implicitly in the Hebrew original.
The strength of the Christian tradition as to Mary's share in this victory may be inferred from the retention of "she" in St. Jerome's version in spite of his acquaintance with the original text and with the reading "he" ipse in the old Latin version.
As it is quite commonly admitted that the Divine judgment is Virgin group not so much against the serpent as against the originator of sinthe seed of the serpent denotes the followers of the serpentthe "brood of vipers", the "generation of vipers", those whose father is the Devilthe children of evilimitando, non Virgin group Augustine.
But seed not only may denote a particular personbut has such a meaning usually, if the context allows it.
He saith not, and to his seeds, as of many; but as of one, and to his seed, which is Christ ". Finally the expression "the woman " in the clause "I will put enmities between thee and the woman " is a literal version of the Hebrew text. The Hebrew Grammar of Gesenius-Kautzsch  establishes the rule: Peculiar to the Hebrew is the use of the article in order to indicate a person or thing, not yet known and not yet to be more clearly described, either as present or as to be taken into account under the contextual conditions.
Since our indefinite article serves this purpose, we may translate: Hence the prophecy promises a womanOur Blessed Lady, who will be the enemy of the serpent to a marked degree; besides, the same woman will be victorious over the Devilat least through her offspring.
The completeness of the victory is emphasized by the contextual phrase "earth shall thou eat", which is according to Winckler  a common old-oriental expression denoting the deepest humiliation . Critics have endeavoured to represent this passage as a combination of occurrences and sayings from the life of the prophet written down by an unknown hand .
The credibility of the contents is not necessarily affected by this theory, since prophetic traditions may be recorded by any writer without losing their credibility.
But even Duhm considers the theory as an apparent attempt on the part of the critics to find out what the readers are willing to bear patiently; he believes it is a real misfortune for criticism itself that it has found a mere compilation in a passage which so graphically describes the birth-hour of faith.
According to 2 Kings It appears that an alliance had been concluded between Phacee, King of Israeland Rasin, King of Damascusfor the purpose of opposing a barrier to the Assyrian aggressions.
Achazwho cherished Assyrian proclivities, did not join the coalition; the allies invaded his territory, intending to substitute for Achaz a more subservient ruler, a certain son of Tabeel.
While Rasin was occupied in reconquering the maritime city Elath, Phacee alone proceeded against Juda"but they could not prevail". After Elath had fallen, Rasin joined his forces with those of Phacee; " Syria hath rested upon Ephraim", whereupon "his Achaz' heart was moved, and the heart of his people, as the trees of the woods are moved with the wind".
Immediate preparations must be made for a protracted siege, and Achaz is busily engaged near the upper pool from which the city received the greater part of its water supply.
Hence the Lord says to Isaias: The prophet's commission is of an extremely consoling nature: The scheme of the enemies shall not succeed: Syria will gain nothing, it will remain as it has been in the past: Ephraim too will remain in the immediate future as it has been hitherto: Achaz had abandoned the Lord for Molochand put his trust in an alliance with Assyria ; hence the conditional prophecy concerning Juda"if you will not believeyou shall not continue".
The test of belief follows immediately: The king prefers Assyria to Godand Assyria will come: Still the general Messianic promises made to the house of David cannot be frustrated: Behold a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and his name shall be called Emmanuel.
He shall eat butter and honey, that he may know to refuse the evil and to choose the good. For before the child know to refuse the eviland to choose the goodthe land which thou abhorrest shall be forsaken of the face of her two kings.
The argument is based on the premises that the prophet's virgin is the mother of Emmanueland that Emmanuel is Christ. The relation of the virgin to Emmanuel is clearly expressed in the inspired words; the same indicate also the identity of Emmanuel with the Christ. The connection of Emmanuel with the extraordinary Divine sign which was to be given to Achaz predisposes one to see in the child more than a common boy.
Finally, the prophet calls Emmanuel "a rod out of the root of Jesse" endowed with "the spirit of the Lord.ashio-midori.com is the home of the Virgin Group and the Branson family. Virgin Group is a multinational venture capital conglomerate.
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